Submitted by on Thu, 10/11/2018 - 20:33 Horizontal tabsSummaryNitrogen Species: AmmoniaNitrogen dioxideClimatic Zone: TemperateGeographic Region: East EuropeUSA and CanadaWest EuropeSector: Agriculture (arable) Measure descriptionMeasure overview: Perforated risers are a type of alternative tile intake that increases sediment trapping efficiency through increased settling time and/or filtering. They can also reduce the velocity of flow into the tile inlet. Isolated surface depressions in agricultural fields are commonly drained with subsurface tile having surface intakes. Open intakes that are flush with the surface of the ground can provide a direct conduit for sediment and nutrients to enter the tile system, which lead to ditches, streams, and rivers. Measure EfficiencyReduction in Nitrogen Losses: Nitrogen SpeciesAmmonia(NH3) Ammonium Nitrate (NH4NO3)Nitrogen Dioxide (NO2)Nitrous Oxide (N2O)NOxNrTotal N % of Reduction CostsEstimated costs of measure delivery: Cost savings and production benefits ($)Capital costs of implementing this measure ($)Operational costs of implementing this measure ($) Refs and Further InfoLinks to further information: Miller, T. P. , J. R. Peterson, C. F. Lenhart, and Y. Nomura. 2012. The Agricultural BMP Handbook for Minnesota. Minnesota Department of Agriculture.References: Miller, T. P. , J. R. Peterson, C. F. Lenhart, and Y. Nomura. 2012. The Agricultural BMP Handbook for Minnesota. Minnesota Department of Agriculture.